Day 2 :
Wilfrid laurier university, Canada
Keynote: Parkinson’s disease: A systematic evaluation of underlying mechanisms leading to motor symptoms
Time : 09:30-10:10
Quincy Almeida is the Director of the Sun Life Financial Movement Disorders Research & Rehabilitation Centre at Wilfrid Laurier University. His research has been featured in the Toronto Star, the Globe & Mail, on CBC and CTV national news as well as featured in Maclean’s magazine. He has been funded by NSERC, and multi-million dollar grants from the Canada Foundation for Innovation and CIHR, and has won several awards including the Franklin Henry Young Scientist Award for motor control in Canada, Parkinson’s Society of Canada Young Investigator’s Award, Polanyi Prize for Physiology and Medicine, the Queen’s Elizabeth II Diamond Jubiliee Medal and the Early Career Distinguished Scholar Award from the NASPSPA Organization. He has spoken about his novel approach to understanding Parkinson’s disease across the world including widely across South America, Europe and Australia
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive disorder that affects 4.1 million world-wide and costs health care systems billions of dollars annually. While dopaminergic therapies remain the gold standard of treatment, pharmaceutical interventions only mask the symptoms of PD, rather than addressing the underlying cause of symptoms. In addition, many motor symptoms are resistant to dopaminergic treatments, while causing additional motor complications or side effects (including wearing off, motor fluctuations, dyskinesias; see Almeida & Hyson, 2010 review). Mobility deficits are arguably the most debilitating symptoms associated with PD, and studying them can serve as a valuable model that can shed light on mechanisms underlying all motor symptoms in PD and other movement disorders). One example is the so-called ‘freezing phenomena’, in which patients report feeling like their feet are glued to the ground leaving them unable to make their next step. This symptom is argued by many to be unresponsive to typical drug treatments, and often leads to an increased risk of trips and falls. Thus, it is considered the most severe gait disorder associated with advanced PD. Considering the vast neural networks essential for the planning and control of human locomotion, the interactions between sensory, perceptual, cognitive and emotional networks are not easy to disentangle. Sensory and perceptual systems are required to accurately detect and make judgments about objects and obstacles that we interact with. These systems are also needed to interpret the progression of successful (or unsuccessful) waking relative to environmental obstacles or threats. In addition, higher level emotional and cognitive processes (anxiety, attention, executive function) play an important role in recognition and semantic processing of environmental stimuli. Thus the goal of the presentation is to systematically consider the underlying factors that may underlie motor symptoms as well their interactions, in order to identify novel treatment strategies for PD
Fluminense Federal University, Brazil
Time : 10:10-10:50
Jose Mario F De Oliveira is an Associate Professor of Medicine in the Department of Medicine at the Universidade Federal Fluminense, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He is also one of the Deputy Editors for Diabetes of the British Medical Journal. He has published a number of papers and has served as a reviewer and has author for many prestigious medical journals like Hypertension, American Journal of Hypertension, Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, British Medical Journal and New England Journal of Medicine. His main interests are in the clinical research of Diabetes and Hypertension. He is a Certified Preventive Cardiologist, Nephrologist, and Adult Intensive Care Unit Physician. He was a Post-doctoral Clinical and Research Fellow at the Endocrinology-Hypertension-Diabetes division at Harvard Medical School, in Boston, USA.
Albeit diagnosed and defined as a “primary sugar disease of the adult”; i.e., also as namely a disease of the carbohydrate metabolism by most authors; so called type 2 diabetes mellitus should be better defined as a “No Man’s Land” state of disease in adults, at most diagnosed by a fasting glycaemia equal or higher than 126 mg/dL, and why this reality? Because in a global epidemic, which is badly out of control, among other reasons there is not much time to loose. So let’s get into some facts! Despite all controversies surrounding the etiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic roles for hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus, new anti-hyperglycemic drugs are still getting into the market at a high speed, due to the overconfidence in HbA1c as a surrogate outcome for microvascular complications; albeit all large recent randomized clinical trials and meta-analysis have shown that trying to achieve glycemic levels close to the normal range did not reduce the most clinically important microvascular or macro-vascular hard endpoints as end-stage renal disease, vision loss, stroke, cardiovascular and total mortality, with the added harm of substantial increase in the number of hypoglycemic episodes, and even death rates. If glucose or HbA1c were good surrogate disease markers, then why there is increased mortality in the ACCORD trial and the recent rosiglitazone saga, among other anti-hyperglycemic drugs? The above, among other core issues, will be covered during the presentation.
Avalon University, Netherlands
Time : 11:10-11:50
M V Raghavendra Rao has worked as a Professor of Microbiology, Parasitology, Immunology and Epidemiology in many universities, many medical colleges in India, China, Nepal, Libya, and Philippines. Currently, he is working as PrAofessor of Microbiology, Parasitology, Immunology and Dean (Student Affairs) at Avalon University School of Medicine, Curacao, Netherland Antilles. He has more than 42 years of teaching and research experience. He has supervised 3 students for PhD, 4 students for MPhil, 4 students for pre MPhil degrees. He has authored 18 text books. He has presented 8 full length papers exclusively during 2014 to 2015 in different international journals. In 2016, he has published two full length papers in international journals.
Background: Diabetes is a multi-system metabolic disease with varied clinical presentations. Free radical injury is an important aspect of tissue injury in metabolic diseases. Free radicals have a wide spectrum of tissue damage and can be targeted effectively by secondary plant metabolites. This experimental study explores the usefulness of secondary metabolites from two natural plants, Albizzia lebbeck and Syzygium cumini, for their possible antioxidant and diabeto-protective properties.
Methods: An experimental study was conducted in controlled experimental animals (rats) beginning with the exposure to Streptozotocin (STZ), for generation of free radicals. This initiated lipid peroxidation which was documented with subsequent change in the serum levels of malondialdehyde. The overall effect of STZ in relation to change in serum glucose and lipids level, body weight and antioxidant parameters were also measured. After co-administered with aqueous methanolic extract of natural plants, the protective role of the plant products against the free radicals was noted after. Finally hepatic histopathological studies were conducted to document the effect of the experiment.
Results: There were major reductions in the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione after 30 days of experiment with STZ, suggesting the generation of free radicals. The co-administration of aqueous methanolic extract from natural plants significantly increased these antioxidant enzymes and reduced the elevated serum levels of malondialdehyde. There was also reduction in the blood sugar and lipids level, and decrease in body weight in contrast to STZ indicating the diabeto-protective effect. The histopathological evidences consolidated the findings by showing prevention of damage to the ultrastructure of liver rather than regeneration.
Conclusion: The established diabeto-protective actions of various extracts of natural plants in experimental rats widen the scope for further investigations in the field of research. It is also necessary to isolate and characterize the active chemical constituent of this plant extracts and efforts should be taken to establish such isolates as potential drug in clinical practice.